Baremetal Vecx direct (1)


Last act before the holiday.
Update to The original games are nearly perfect now – my own games not yet. (perhaps the emulation can be a tiny slightly bit faster though)

During the vecx execution I already implemented a „reset detection“ – so while you are in the emulator you can return to the main menu via „reset“ (on your vectrex). (I plan to implement that to the other „things“ as well … but it is no so easy as it may sound).

Also after the „Vecx direct“ select you jump to a submenu, where you can chose what rom to play. Listed are all roms that are on your piTrex in the directory „vectrex“.

“Up/down” chose the selection, „button” – run the selection,

„left/right” load the next four titles from the directory.

The archive contains now a directory „to_baremetal“ – you can copy the contents directly to your baremetal „game“ pi….


Graham opened up a whole new world of „timing” measurement for me, by telling me, that there is a way to access a CPU cycle counter of the ARM. With this it is possible to measure exactly up to one processor cycle which is 1 nano second!

Ok… due to Heisenberg… we can never measure that exact… put in the range of +- 10 nano seconds is GREAT. 

Anyway, due to experiments done today, I think the emulator is „good” enough, its the VIA access the pitrex does, which might be causing the trouble…
I am measuring within the VECX emulator how long (write) access to the VIA need:

...  // reset the cycle counter  PMNC(CYCLE_COUNTER_ENABLE|CYCLE_COUNTER_RESET|COUNTER_ZERO);    // set data to VIA  SET(viaRegister, data);
  // get the cycles, that passed  unsigned int waited  = get_cyclecount();
  // print them  printf("VIA ACCESS: %i \r\n", waited);...

The PMNC … is a macro to actually a single assembler line.
The get_cycle_count() is inlined and are actually 2 assembler instruction… nothing which should really influence the result in a great deal.
Following is the result of one VECTREX „round”:

low: about 1200high: about 1900

Reminder: 1 vectrex cycle = 666 nano seconds

So it seems:
a) to write a value to via takes about 2 „vectrex” cycles
b) we can lose up to 1 cycle, when we „start” the via access at exactly the wrong time (when one cycle so to say just finished, and we have to wait for the next)

– While printing raster data you CAN see a difference, if something is 1 vectrex cycle of.- There are quite a couple of VIA accesses
– the „faults” accumulate with each „line” of the String.

See (animated GIF):

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